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If your sources or questions are not covered in this guide, consult The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) located on Closed Reserve or in the Reference section (REF 808.06 P976) or check out the APA website or Purdue University's Online Writing Lab.

References & Examples
(Guidelines for listing the sources you cited in your paper)

The Reference page should be a separate page at the end of your paper entitled “References” and formatted in this way:

  1. Organization/Authors – Alphabetize by the author’s last name. Use initials for first and middle names. If no author is given, use the first significant word of the title (Excluding “a” & “the”). If the author is anonymous, use “Anonymous”.  Give the last name and initials for up to and including seven authors. If there are more than seven authors, list the first 6, use ellipses, and list the last author's name.  
  2. Spacing – Double-space between lines. Use one space after punctuation.
  3. Hanging Indentation – Place the first line of each entry flush with the left margin; indent additional lines 5 spaces.
  4. Capitalization – For book or article titles, capitalize 1) the first word, 2) the first word after a colon or dash, and 3) proper names. Do not capitalize the second word of a hyphenated compound. For magazine and journal names, capitalize all significant words.
  5. Brackets – Enclose any non-routine information that is important for identification in brackets immediately after the article title. Some examples: [Abstract] or [Brochure] or [Book review of …].
  6. Italics – Italicize magazine or journal titles and journal volume numbers. Italicize books, reports, databases, newspapers and film titles. Do not italicize titles of articles or essays.
  7. Electronic Sources – Follow the format for print versions. Then, add a retrieval statement (4.15). For internet sources, the retrieval statement should include: Retrieved Month & Day, Year from URL. Retrieval statements are not needed if online journals are identical to the print version. APA says that retrieval statements for articles retrieved from databases is optional. so check with your instructor.  

Examples

Book   4.16 B

Kutcher, A. (2004) Getting people angry: An introduction. Los Angeles, CA: Don't Look Now Press.

1. Book authors or editors [Use (Eds.) after names if listing editors]: Kutcher, A.
2. Date of publication: (2003).
3. Book title (italicized): Getting people angry: An introduction.
4. Publication information: Los Angeles, CA: Don't Look Now Press.

 

Article in a scholarly journal paginated by volume (paper format)  4.16 A1

Romano, R. (2001). My mother lives across the street. Journal of Dysfunctional Families,

71, 123-130. 

1. Article author: Romano, R.
2. Date of publication: (2001).
3. Article title: My mother lives across the street.
4. Journal title and volume number (italicized): Journal of Dysfunctional Families, 71,
5. Page numbers: 123-130.

 

Article in a scholarly journal paginated by issue (paper format)  4.16 A2

Kane, E. (2002). My life in Pine Valley. Journal of Soap Opera Dysfunctions, 71 (2) 10-13. 

1. Article author: Kane, E.
2. Date of publication: (2002).
3. Article title: My life in Pine Valley.
4. Journal title and volume number (italicized): Journal of Soap Opera Dysfunctions, 71
5. Issue number in parentheses: (2),
6. Page numbers:
10-13.



Article in a magazine retrieved from a database
Please check with your instructor. APA considers including database information in your citation optional, but your instructor may want that information included. If there is a static Document Number or Document Identifier (DOI) include that at the end of the citation. 

Mulder, F. & Scully, D. (1998, November 13). Should we, or shouldn't we? Conspiracy Magazine, 30-33.

      Retrieved November 27, 2000, from Academic OneFile. doi: A147062235

 

1. Article author(s): Mulder, F. & Scully, D.
2. Date of publication: (1998, November 13)
3. Article title: Should we, or shouldn't we?
4. Magazine title (italicized): Conspiracy Magazine,
5. Article page numbers: 30-33.
6. Retrieval Statement with date and database name: Retrieved November 27, 2000, from Expanded Academic database.



Internet articles based on a print source
4.16
Online articles can be cited the same way you would cite the print resource and include a Retrieval statement. Include all the information that is available from the website.

McHugh, M. (2003, November 22). Snow for the holidays. The Scranton Times, 1A. Retrieved from http://www.scrantontimes.com.

 

1. Article author(s): McHugh, M.
2. Date of publication: (2003, November 22)
3. Article title with notation for viewing website version for the article : Snow for thanksgiving [Electronic version].
4. Newspaper or Magazine title (italicized): The Scranton Times,
5. Article page numbers: 1A.



Personal Communications: Emails, Letters, Personal Interviews, Electronic Bulletin Boards
 3.102
Because personal communications like the ones listed above are not easily retrieved by the general public, do not list them in your references. Cite these personal communications in your text only and include the name and date of the communication.

When I spoke with the Professor, she confirmed I would fail (Flynn, M. personal communication, December 9, 2003).



Article or page on a website
4.16
There are two things to remember when citing webpages: 1) Get readers as close as possible to the information. Cite specific pages and not merely home pages. 2) Provide a URL that works.  Next, a Reference listing for an internet source should contain, at the very least, a page title or description, a date for the page and a date of retrieval, an address and an author.

 

Yahoo! Sports. (n.d.). Retrieved July 7, 2004, from http://sports.yahoo.com

1. Article author(s): When there is no author, use the article or page title.
2. Date of publication: If there is no date, use (n.d.).
3. Article title with notation for viewing website version for the article : Yahoo! Sports.
4. Retrieval statement with date and URL: Retrieved July 7, 2004, from http://sports.yahoo.com

 

Other APA Guides

 
In-Text Citations
Style & Formatting
Overview & Other Websites
 

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This page was updated on 02/18/11